Modern History of India pdf free download
Modern History of India pdf free download: India’s economic and cultural relations with Europe return to the age of ancient history. Throughout the center Ages additionally, the trade between Europe and Bharat and South-East Asia was carried on on many routes. Download modern Indian history pdf.
Modern History of India pdf free download
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The Asian a part of the trade was carried on largely by Arab merchants and sailors, whereas the Mediterranean and European half was the virtual monopoly of the Italians. the product from Asia to Europe skilled many nations and lots of hands before they reached Europe.
Before the Europeans arrived, no enemy had ever invaded Bharat from the ocean. Europeans came slowly initially in search of trade instead of invasion. They sought-after valuable spices from what they referred to as the Malay Archipelago. once little European ships 1st landed on the shores of South Asia within the early 1600s in search of spices, they encountered merchants on the fringe of the Mughal Empire (1526-1858), a kingdom larger and additional powerful than any country in Europe at the time.
The Mughals dominated over a massive and numerous land of deserts, massive passable rivers, thick forests, plateaus, grasslands, and mountains. several of those physical barriers separated numerous linguistic, religious, and ethnic teams. Though there have been non-secular Sikhs within the geographical area to the West, Muslims in the geographical area to the East, Hindu Mahratta tribes within the Deccan highland, Tamil speakers within the South, and Hindu princes in Hyderabad.
The highest mountains within the world—the Himalayas—blocked interaction with China. Invaders, before country, came land from the northwest from what’s these days Islamic Republic of Pakistan, Asian country, and Iran. Conquerors from these lands brought cultural influences like Islam, the Persian language, and Afghani ethnic teams.
The hub of the Mughal Empire was within the densely inhabited northern region on The Ganges River Basin. Thus the made soil and watercourse system there was ideal for farming, transportation, and communication. The Mughal Empire’s weakest presence was on its coasts and this could be one reason behind its ultimate downfall.
The Mughal Empire reached its peak around 1700 and for many reasons began to say no even as the country began to extend their presence. By the center of the eighteenth century, the Mughal Empire was a shadow of its superb past.
It may now not hold off invaders from the northwest. In 1739, Nadir Shah, the Persian king ravaged Old Delhi and killed over twenty,000 people. The Persians scarf the royal jewels, together with the Darya-e Noor diamond, one amongst the oldest and largest diamonds within the world. They additionally took the famed peacock throne. Ahmad crowned head Abdali, then the King of the capital of Afghanistan (Afghanistan) attacked Old Delhi within the decade and decennary. After that, the Mughal Empire still claimed sovereignty over massive areas however in observes was merely the seat of the tiny low kingdom.
For successive hundred years, freelance successor states acknowledged Mughal rule, however, paid very little or no tribute. This development had just about destroyed the Mughal Empire in Bharat.
Entry of Europeans in Bharat (India’s struggle for independence)
The arrival of Europeans in Bharat was the results of direct and indirect consequences of the autumn of Stamboul to Turks in 1453. The capture of Stamboul (and 2 alternative Byzantine splinter territories shortly thereafter) marked the tip of the empire, associate imperial state that had lasted for nearly one,500 years.
The Ottoman conquest of Stamboul additionally dealt an enormous blow to the body, because the Ottoman armies thenceforth were liberated to advance into Europe while not an associate soul to their rear. the autumn of Stamboul additionally cut European trade links with Asia leading several to start seeking routes east by the ocean and keying the age of exploration. This sealed the method for the start of the age of discovery.
In the fifteenth century, the mantle of Christendom’s resistance to Islam had fallen upon Portugal; furthermore, the Portuguese had transmitted the city tradition of exploration. it’s reportable that the concept of finding the associate ocean.
It is reportable that the concept of finding Associate in Nursing ocean route to Ocean had become Associate in Nursing obsession for Henry the Navigator (1394-1460), and he was additionally keen to seek out some way to avoid the Muslim domination of the jap Mediterranean and every one the routes that connected Bharat to Europe.
In 1454, Henry received a bull (Papal charter) from Pope bishop V, that bestowed on him the correct to navigate the “sea to the distant shores of the Orient”, a lot of specifically “as so much as India”, whose inhabitants were to be delivered to facilitate Christians “against the enemies of the faith”.
A crucial breakthrough passed off in 1488, once Bartolomeu Dias rounded the southern tip of Africa, that he named “Cape of Storms”, anchoring at Mossel Bay so sailing east as so much because the mouth of the good Fish watercourse, proving that the ocean was accessible from the Atlantic.
before long the cape was renamed by John II of European nation “Cape of fine Hope”, due to the good optimism engendered by the chance of a ocean route to Bharat, proving false the read that had existed since Ptolemy that the ocean was land-locked.
Under new king Manuel I of the European nation, on July 1497 atiny low searching fleet of 4 ships and regarding one hundred seventy men left port underneath command of Vasco public prosecutor Gama. By Gregorian calendar month, the fleet passed the good Fish River—where Dias had turned back—and sailed into unknown waters. On twenty might 1498, they acquired Calicut.
The efforts of Vasco public prosecutor Gama to urge favourable commercialism conditions were hampered by the low worth of their merchandise, compared with the dear merchandise listed there. 2 years and 2 days once departure, Gama and a survivor crew of fifty five men came back in glory to the European nation because the initial ships to sail directly from Europe to Bharat.
THE ARRIVAL OF PORTUGUESE IN BHARAT(modern history of India pdf free download)
The arrival of Vasco public prosecutor Gama, a male aristocrat from the family of the King of the European nation, at the port of Calicut in south-west Bharat on twenty seven might 1498 inaugurated a replacement chapter in Indian history. for a few time, the Portuguese, among different Europeans, had been searching for a ocean route to Bharat, however, that they had been unable to interrupt freed from the stranglehold exercised by Egyptian rulers over the trade between Europe and Asia.
The Red Sea trade route was a state monopoly from that monotheism rulers earned tremendous revenues.
By the terms of the written agreement of Trodesilhas (1494), all new territories were divided between the European country and European nation. The stage was so set for the Portuguese incursions into the waters close Bharat.
In 1487, the Portuguese navigator, Bartholomew Dias, rounded the “Cape of fine Hope”, then opened the ocean route to Bharat. Associate in Nursing expedition of 4 ships headed bent on Bharat in 1497, and arrived in Bharat in slightly but eleven months’ time.
The coming of the Portuguese introduced several new factors into Indian history. As almost every historian has observed, it not only initiated what might be called the European era, it marked the emergence of naval power.
Doubtless, the Cholas, among others, had been a naval power, but for the first time a foreign power had come to India by way of the sea; moreover, Portuguese dominance would only extend to the coasts, since they were never able to make any significant inroads into the Indian interior.
Modern history of India
The Portuguese ships carried the cannon, but the significance of this is not commonly realized, especially by those who are merely inclined to view the Portuguese as one of a series of invaders of India, or even as specimens of ‘enterprising’ Europeans.
For centuries, the numerous participants in the Indian Ocean trading system – Indians, Arabs, Africans from the east coast, Chinese, Javanese, Sumatrans, among others – had ploughed the sea routes and adhered to various tacit rules of conduct.
Though all were in the trade for profit, as might be expected, no party sought to have overwhelming dominance; certainly, no one had sought to enforce their power through arms. Trade flourished, and all the parties played their role in putting down piracy: this was a free trade zone. Into this arena stepped
forth the Portuguese, who at once declared their intention to abide by no rules except their own, and who sought immediate and decisive advantage over the Indians and over the Indian Ocean trading system.
The conduct of the Portuguese in India was ‘barbaric’. Vasco da Gama’s initial conduct set the tone. On his way to India, he encountered an unarmed vessel returning from Mecca; as a contemporary Portuguese source states, da Gama ordered the ship emptied of its goods, and then had it set on fire, prohibiting “any Moor” being taken from it alive.
He then spent four months in India. Having waited out the monsoons, he set out to return to Portugal with a cargo worth sixty times what he had brought with him, and refused to pay the customary port duties to the Zamorin, the ruler of Calicut. To ensure that his way would not be obstructed, he took a few hostages with him.
When he returned to Portugal in 1499, the pepper he brought with him was sold at an enormous profit; and nothing underscores the importance of direct access to the pepper trade as much as the fact that elsewhere the Europeans, who relied on Muslim middlemen, would have to spend ten times as much for the same amount of pepper.
Emboldened by this success, King Dom Manuel sent another expedition of six ships headed by Pedro Cabral. With their usual ignorance of, and disdain for, local customs, Cabral and the Portuguese sent a low-caste Hindu as a messenger to the Zamorin upon their arrival at the port.
modern Indian history pdf
Meanwhile, the Portuguese were claiming the sole right to the sea. Cabral attacked all Arab vessels within his reach, which provoked a riot at the port that led to the destruction of the Portuguese factory. Cabral retaliated in the only way known to a Portuguese marauder and bandit of his times: he massacred the crews of the boats, and burnt all the ships that were not his own.
The intent, which would be repeatedly witnessed in the history of Portuguese interactions with the Indians (and with others), was to brutalize and terrorize the native population, and with evident justice, that Cabral’s behavior persuaded the Indians that “the intruders were uncivilized barbarians, treacherous and untrustworthy”.
Portuguese governors in India(modern Indian history notes)
In March 1505, Francisco de Almeida was appointed Viceroy of India, on the condition that he would set up four forts on the southwestern Indian coast: at Anjediva Island, Cannanore, Cochin and Quilon. Francisco de Almeida left Portugal with a fleet of twenty-two vessels with fifteen hundred men.
In September, Francisco de Almeida reached Anjadip Island, where he immediately started the construction of Fort Anjediva. In October, with the permission of the friendly ruler of Cannanore, he started building St. Angelo Fort at Cannanore, leaving Lourengo de Brito in charge with 150 men and two ships.
Francisco de Almeida then reached Cochin in October 1505 with only 8 vessels left. There Francisco de Almeida learned that the Portuguese traders at Quilon had been killed. He decided to send his son Lourengo de Almeida with 6 ships, who destroyed 27 Calicut vessels in the harbor of Quilon. Almeida took up residence in Cochin. Almeida strengthened the Portuguese fortifications of Fort Manuel on Cochin.
The Zamorin prepared a large fleet of 200 ships to oppose the Portuguese, but in March 1506 Lourengo de Almeida (son of Francisco de Almeida) was victorious in a sea battle at the entrance to the harbor of Cannanore, the Battle of Cannanore (1506), an important setback for the fleet of the Zamorin.
Thereupon Lourengo de Almeida explored the coastal waters southwards to Colombo, in what is now Sri Lanka. In Cannanore, however, a replacement ruler, hostile to the Portuguese and friendly with the Zamorin, attacked the Portuguese garrison, resulting in the blockade of Cannanore (1507).
In 1507 Almeida’s mission was reinforced by the arrival of Tristao prosecuting attorney Cunha’s squadron. Afonso Delaware Albuquerque’s squadron had, however, split from that of Cunha off a geographical area and was severally subjugation territories within the gulf to the west. In March 1508 a Portuguese squadron under command of Lourengo de Almeida was attacked by a combined Mameluk Egyptian and Gujarat Sultanate fleet at Chaul and Dabul respectively, it was led by admiral Mirocem and Meliqueaz at the Battle of Chaul (1508). Lourengo de Almeida lost his life after a fierce fight in this battle.
Mamluk-lndian resistance was, however, to be decisively defeated at the Battle of Diu (1509). Alfonso De Albuquerque (1509-15) was the second Portuguese governor. He was the real founder of the Portuguese empire in India. He encouraged his countrymen to marry Indian women to increase the number of his supporters.
India’s struggle for independence
The products of these marriages were known as Feringhees. Albuquerque made provisions for the education of the natives and retained Indian system of government (Village Panchayats) in the villages. He took steps to prohibit the practice of Sati.
A new fleet beneath Marshal Fernao Coutinho arrived with specific directions to destroy the ability of Zamorin’s Calicut. The Zamorin’s palace was captured and destroyed and therefore the town was assault hearth. However, the king’s forces rallied quick to kill Marshal Cutinho and wounded Albuquerque.
Albuquerque all the same was clever enough to patch up his quarrel and entered into a written agreement with the Zamorin in 1513 to safeguard Portuguese interests in Malabar. Hostilities were revived once the Portuguese tried to assassinate the Zamorin someday between 1515 and 1518.
In 1510, Afonso Delaware Albuquerque defeated the Bijapur sultans with the assistance of Timayya, on behalf of the Hindu Vijayanagara Empire, resulting in the institution of a permanent settlement in Velha province (or previous Goa). The Southern Province, additionally glorious merely as the province, was the headquarters of the Portuguese Asian country, and seat of the Portuguese viceroy United Nations agency ruled the Portuguese possessions in Asia.
there have been Portuguese settlements in and around Mylapore. The Luz Church in Mylapore, Madras (Chennai) was the primary church that the Portuguese in-built Madras in 1516. Later in 1522, the Sao Tome church was designed on the grave of Saint Thomas.
The Portuguese noninheritable many territories from the Sultans of Gujarat: Daman (occupied 1531, formally ceded 1539); Salsette, Bombay, and Bagaim (occupied 1534); and Diu (ceded 1535).
modern Indian history notes
These possessions became the Northern Province of the Portuguese Republic of India, that extended nearly a hundred kilometre on the coast from Daman to Chaul, and in places 30-50 kilometre interior. The province was dominated from the fortress-town of Bagaim.
From the sixteenth century, the Portuguese meddled within the church affairs of the Syrian Christians of Malabar. The Udayamperoor council (1599) was a serious try by the Portuguese bishop Menezes to Latinize the Syrian ceremony. Later in 1653, Coonan Cross Oath diode to the division of the native church into Syrian Catholics and Syrian Christians (Jacobites). Bombay (present day Mumbai) was given to kingdom in 1661 as a part of the Portuguese patrician Catherine of Braganza’s dowery to Charles II of the European country.
Most of the Northern Province was lost to the Marathas in 1739, and European country nonheritable Dadra and Nagar Haveli in 1779. In 1843 the capital was shifted to Panjim, then renamed “Nova Goa”, once it formally became the executive seat of Portuguese Republic of India, replacement the town of Velha Goa (now previous Goa), though the Viceroys lived there already since December 1759.
Before moving to the town, the viceroy transformed the fort of Adil Khan, reworking it into a palace. The Portuguese additionally shipped over several Orfas del Rei to Portuguese colonies in the Republic of India, Goa specifically. Orfas del Rei virtually interprets to “Orphans of the King”, and that they were Portuguese woman orphans sent to overseas colonies to marry either Portuguese settlers or natives with status.
Thus there ar Portuguese footprints everywhere the western and jap coasts of the Republic of India, although Goa became the capital of Portuguese Goa from 1530 forwards till the annexation of Goa correct and therefore the entire Estado prosecuting officer Republic of India Portuguesa, and its merger with the Indian Union in 1961.THE ARRIVAL OF DUTCH IN INDIA ( modern history of India pdf free download)
In 1593 AD under William Barents, the Dutch made their first determined effort to reach Asia. Huyghen Van Linschoten was the first Dutch national to reach India. He reached Goa in 1583 AD and stayed there till 1589 AD. Cornelius Houtman, a Dutch citizen reached India in 1596 AD and returned with large cargo in 1597 AD.
Between 1595 AD and 1601 AD fifteen voyages had been by the Dutch to East Indies. The Dutch East India Company was formed in 1602 AD by an order of the government of Holland. This company’s name was Vereenigdde Oost Indische Compagnie (VOC).
The Dutch got the favorable response from the king of Golkunda. They got the right to mint coin in the Pulicat mint in 1657 from Golkunda king. By the farman of 1676, the Golkunda ruler granted the Dutch complete freedom from tariffs in Golkunda.
The Dutch succeeded in getting farman from the Mughal Emperor Jahangir for trading along the west coast. They were exempted from tolls from Burhanpur to Cambay and Ahmadabad. Shah Jahan granted the total exemption to the company from paying transit throughout the Mughal Empire.
Aurangzeb confirmed all the privileges granted by Shahjahan to the Dutch in Bengal in 1662. Jahandar Shah confirmed all the privileges granted by Aurangzeb in Coromandal in 1712.
Initially, the headquarters of Dutch was at Pulicat after obtaining permission from the king of Chandragiri Venkat I and in 1690 Negapattnam became their headquarters. The Dutch minted a gold coin named Pagoda.
The Dutch established their first factory at Masulipattnam in 1605 AD. Their first factory in Bengal was established at Pipli. After some time Balasore replaced Pipli. The Dutch used to exchange spices of Malaya Archipelago for cotton goods from Gujrat and the Coromandal coast. The Dutch used to export Cotton cloths, silk, salt petre and opium from Bengal.
They shattered the Portuguese commercial monopoly in India. The Dutch dominated the trade between India and Java during the 17th century. They popularized spice and textile trade, besides they exported indigo, saltpetre and Raw Silk.
The Dutch commercial activities began to decline by the beginning of the 18th century. The Dutch were defeated by the English in the Battle of Bedera in 1759 and with this defeat, the Dutch influence in India almost came to an end.
The English decided to drive the Dutch away from their Indian possessions. The English joined hands with the Portuguese in India to drive the Dutch out. By 1795, the English succeeded in expelling the Dutch completely.
ENGLISH EAST INDIA COMPANY ( India’s struggle for independence)
The “English Trading Company” was formed by a group of merchants known as the ‘Merchant Adventures’ in 1599 AD. This company was granted a charter by Queen Elizabeth I on 31st Dec. 1600 AD. ‘The Governor and the Company of Merchants of London trading into East Indies’ was the name of English company. This company was given monopoly rights over eastern trade for fifteen years.
In 1608 AD Captain William Hawkins reached the court of Jahangir. Hawkins was the ambassador of King James I. He lived at the court for three years. He was given the title of English Khan and Mansab of 400 Jat by Jahangir. But because of Portuguese influence at the court, Hawkins failed to get permission to erect a factory at Surat.
In 1611 Capt. Middleton landed at Swally near Surat in spite of Portuguese opposition and got permission to trade from the Mughal governor. In 1612 AD Capt. Best defeated the Portuguese at Swally near Surat and this defeat broke their naval supremacy.
Captain Best succeeded in getting a royal Farman to open factories in the West Coast, Surat, Cambay, Ahmadabad and Goa in 1613 AD. Sir Thomas Roe (1615-18) came to the court of Jahangir as the Royal ambassador of King James I and received permission to trade and establish factories in different parts of the empire.
The first English factory in the south was established at Masulipattnam in 1611 AD. Another factory was established at Armagaon (near Pulicat) in 1626 AD. In 1632 AD the Sultan of Golkunda issued the company the Golden Farman. This farman allowed them to trade within the ports of the kingdom freely on lump sum payment of 500 pagodas a year.
In 1639 AD Francis Day obtained the site of Madras from the Raja of Chandragiri with permission to build a fortified factory. This factory was named Fort St. George. In Sep. 1641 AD Madras replaced Masulipattnam as the headquarters of the English on the Coromandal coast. All the English settlements in Eastern India (Bengal, Bihar and Orissa) and the Coromandal were placed under the control of the President and Council of Fort St. George.
The Portuguese gave the island to Bombay to King Charles II of England in dowry in 1661 AD. Bombay was given to the company in 1668 AD on the annual rent of £10. Thereafter Bombay replaced Surat as the headquarters on the west coast. Bombay was fortified in 1720 by Charles Boon.
Expansion of the factories of English East India Company
The English established their first factory in Orissa at Hariharpur (near the mouth of river Mahanadi), Balasore and Pipli in 1633 AD. In 1651 Shah Shuja, the governor of Bengal, granted the English Trading Company a Nishan through which they received trading privileges in return for a fixed annual payment of Rs. 3000. By another Nishan the English Company was exempted from Custom duties in 1656 First English factory in Bengal was established at Hughli in 1651 AD.
In 1667 AD Aurangzeb confirmed the privileges enjoyed by the company. In 1672 AD Shayista Khan, the Mughal governor of Bengal confirmed the privileges enjoyed by the company. In 1686 two pirate ships (Ships of English free traders) captured several Mughal ships in the Red Sea. Upon this, the Mughal governor of Surat attacked the English.
Hostilities broke out in Bengal also. Hughli was sacked by the Mughals. The English were forced to leave Hughli. Aurangzeb granted them permission to trade, on payment of Rs. 1,50,000 as compensation. In 1691 AD Job Charnock established a factory at Sutanati. In 1691 AD Aurangzeb granted a farman by which they were exempted from the of custom duties in Bengal in return for an annual payment of Rs 3000. The rebellion of Shoba Singh, a Zamindar of Burdwan provided an opportunity to the English to fortify the settlement at Sutanati.
Sir William Noris was sent as a special envoy by the English king to Aurangzeb’s court to secure the formal grant of the trading concessions and the right to exercise full English jurisdiction over the English settlements in 1698 AD.
In the same year, British acquired the Zamindari of the villages of Sutanati, Kalikata and Govindpur from Mughal governor Azimush Shah on payment of Rs 1200 to the original proprietors. These three villages crested the nucleus of modern Calcutta. The rebellion of Afghan Rahim Khan provided the English opportunity to fortify Calcutta.
It was named Fort William (1700 AD). Sir Charles Eyre was the first president of Fort William. All settlements in Bengal, Bihar and Orissa were placed under Fort William (1700 AD).
Emperor Farruksivar’s Farman ( modern history of India)
In 1717 AD the Presidencies of Bombay, Madras and Calcutta sent a combined mission to the court of Emperor Farruksiyar. The mission was led by John Surman. Dr. William Hamilton was a member of the Surman commission.
He cured Farruksiyar of a painful disease. The relieved Farruksiyar granted the company three Farmans in 1717 AD for duty free trade. These Farmans of Farruksiyar (1717) are called the Magna Carta of the Company. By this farman, the Company was granted a right to duty free trade in Bengal in lieu of an annual payment of Rs. 3000. The Company was also allowed to wherever they pleased and rent additional territory around Calcutta.
In Case of the province of Hyderabad, the English Company was allowed freedom from all dues except rent paid for Madras. The Company was granted a right to duty free trade at Surat in lieu of an annual payment of Rs. 10000. The currency coined by the company was made current throughout the Mughal Empire.
Development of the East India Company ( modern Indian history pdf )
The internal management of the English company was administered by a court of committees whose nomenclature later was changed to the court of directors. It consisted of a governor, a deputy governor, and 24 members to be elected annually by a general body of the merchants forming the company. Besides, there was a secretary and a treasurer.
The company’s superior body court of directors was based in London while its subordinate body was in Asia. The Directors to be annually elected by the shareholders of the company. Each shareholder, irrespective of the value of the share had only one vote. The membership of the company was not confined to shareholders only but it could be secured through inheritance or presentation by paying an entrance fee through apprenticeship, services etc.
Company enjoyed extensive powers to issue orders and to make laws in accordance with the laws and customs of the realm. The company also possessed judicial powers to punish its servants for their offences by imprisonment or fine.
In India, most of all factory was administered by a Governor – in- council. The governor was the President of the council with no extra privileges. Everything was decided in the council by majority vote. The members of the council consisted of senior merchants of the company. The Court of Directors was the supreme authority in framing policies for the company.
Queen Elizabeth was one of the shareholders of the company. After Queen Elizabeth’s death, James I renewed the charter though it could be revoked at any time at three year notice. The company got the power to enforce the law to maintain discipline on long voyages. The Charter Act of 1683 AD gave the company full power to declare war and make peace with any power. In spite of all opposition English independent merchants, known as Interlopers continued to defy the monopoly of the company by indulging in the East Indian trade of their own.
These Free Merchants tried to press their demands in public as well as in Parliament. In 1694 AD the Parliament passed the resolution that all the citizens of England had equal right to trade in the East. In 1698 AD British Govt, sold the monopoly rights of East Indies trade to a new company named General Society. The London Company was given a notice of three to wind up the business. The Old Company refused to surrender their privileges.
After a long drawn conflict both the companies agreed to join hands in 1702 AD. In 1708 AD a new company named ‘The united Company of Merchants of England Trading to the East Indies’ was formed by amalgamating both the companies.
FRENCH EAST INDIA COMPANY ( INDIAS STRUGGLE FOR INDEPENDENCE)
The French were the last European traders to arrive in India. French East India Company was formed under state patronage by Colbert in 1664 AD. The French company was named the Compagnie Des Indes Orientals.
In Dec 1667 AD the first French factory was set up at Surat by Francois Caron. In 1669 AD Marcara set up a factory at Masulipattnam by securing a patent from the Sultan of Golkunda. They also succeeded in getting a farman from Aurangzeb in 1669 AD to open their factory at Surat. In 1673 AD the French (Francois Martin & Bellanger De Lespinary) acquired from the Muslim governor of Valikoindapuram Sher Khan Lodi a small village.
This village developed into Pondichery and its first governor was Francois Martin. Fort Louis was established here. They acquired the site of Chandernagore in Bengal from the Mughal governor Shayista Khan in 1674 AD. French factory was established here in 1690 AD.
Pondichery (Fort Louis) was made the headquarters of all the French settlements in India and Francois Martin became the governor -general of French affairs in India. French commander Martin readily acknowledged the authority of Shivaji and agreed to pay him an amount in lieu of license to trade in his dominions. The French got the permission to fortify Pondichery in 1689 from Sambhaji.
Duplex was the most important French Governor in India. The supreme body of the French Company was known as the superior council of the Indies and headed by a Director General.
The Supreme Council composed of five members was presided over by the governor. French East India Company was a state controlled organization and thus differed from the Chartered Companies of England and the Netherlands. It was highly dependent on the French government for its grants, subsidies, loans etc.
Modern History of India pdf free download