Spectrum Books | Spectrum Modern History | Rajiv Ahir

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SOURCES AND APPROACHES 1

Chapter 1: Sources for the History of Modern India spectrum books

Archival Materials 4

Central Government Archives 4

Archives of the State Governments 5

Archives of Three Presidencies 6

Archives of Other European Powers 6

Judicial Records 7

Published Archives 7

Private Archives 8

Foreign Repositories 8

Biographies, Memoirs and Travel Accounts 9

Newspapers and Journals 10

Oral Evidence 11

Creative Literature 11

Painting 12

Summary 14

Chapter 2: Spectrum modern history

Major Approaches to the History of Modern India 15

Colonial Approach/ Historiography 16

Nationalist Historiography/ Approach 16

Marxist Historiography/ Approach 17

Subaltern Approach/ Historiography 18

Communalist Approach 19

Cambridge School 20

Liberal and Neo-Liberal Interpretations 20

Feminist Historiography 20

Summary 21

Unit II

ADVENT OF EUROPEANS AND 23

CONSOLIDATION OF BRITISH

POWER IN INDIA

Chapter 3: spectrum history book

The advent of the Europeans in India 25

The Portuguese in India 25

The Quest for and Discovery of a 25

Sea Route to India

From Trading to Ruling 27

Portuguese State 31

Portuguese Lose Favour with the Mughals 34

A decline of the Portuguese 36

The significance of the Portuguese 37

The Dutch 39

Dutch Settlements 39

Anglo-Dutch Rivalry 40

Decline of the Dutch in India 41

The English 41

Charter of Queen Elizabeth I 41

The progress of the English Company 42

The French 46

Foundation of French Centres in India 46

The Anglo-French Struggle for Supremacy: the 48

Carnatic Wars

Causes for the English Success and the 55

French Failure

The Danes 58

Why the English Succeeded against 58

Other European Powers

Structure and Nature of the Trading Companies 58

Naval Superiority 59

Industrial Revolution 59

Military Skill and Discipline 59

Stable Government 59

Lesser Zeal for Religion 60

Use of Debt Market 60

Summary 61

Boxes

Portuguese Rise and Fall 37

Formative Years of the East India Company 45

Rise and Fall of Dupleix in India 51

About the Goods in Trade Initially 56

Chapter 4: spectrum textbooks

India on the Eve of British Conquest 64

Challenges before the Mughals 64

External Challenges 64

Weak Rulers after Aurangzeb—An 67

Internal Challenge

Causes of Decline of Mughal Empire 69

Shifting Allegiance of Zamindars 70

Jagirdari Crisis 70

Rise of Regional Aspirations 73

Economic and Administrative Problems 74

Rise of Regional States 75

Survey of Regional Kingdoms 75

Nature and Limitations of Regional States 79

Socio-Economic Conditions 80

Agriculture 80

Trade and Industry 80

Status of Education 82

Societal Set-up 83

Development in Art, Architecture and Culture 85

Summary 86

Boxes

Why Many Empire-shaking Battles at Panipat? 66

Causes of the Mughals’ Downfall in a Nutshell 74

Chapter 5: Rajiv Ahir Expansion and Consolidation of British

Power in India

The British Imperial History 88

Was the British Conquest Accidental or Intentional? 88

When did the British Period Begin in India? 90

Causes of British Success in India 91

Superior Arms, Military and Strategy 91

Better Military Discipline and Regular Salary 92

Civil Discipline and Fair Selection System 92

Brilliant Leadership and Support of Second 92

Line Leaders

Strong Financial Backup 93

Nationalist Pride 93

British Conquest of Bengal 93

Bengal on the Eve of British Conquest 93

Alivardi Khan and the English 94

Challenges Before Siraj-ud-daula 95

The Battle of Plassey 95

Mir Kasim and the Treaty of 1760 97

spectrum books: The Battle of Buxar 98

The Treaty of Allahabad 100

Dual Government in Bengal (1765-72) 101

Mysore’s Resistance to the Company 102

The Wodeyar / Mysore Dynasty 102

Rise of Haidar Ali 102

First Anglo-Mysore War (1767-69) 103

Second Anglo-Mysore War (1780-84) 104

Third Anglo-Mysore War 105

Fourth Anglo-Mysore War 106

Mysore After Tipu 109

Anglo-Maratha Struggle for Supremacy 109

spectrum books: The rise of the Marathas 109

Entry of the English into Maratha Politics 110

First Anglo-Maratha War (1775-82) 110

Second Anglo Maratha War (1803-1805) 113

Third Anglo-Maratha War (1817-19) 114

Why the Marathas Lost 116

Conquest of Sindh 118

Rise of Talpuras Amirs 118

Gradual Ascendancy over Sindh 119

Criticisms of the Conquest of Sindh 122

Conquest of Punjab 123

Consolidation of Punjab under the Sikhs 123

Ranjit Singh and the English 124

Punjab After Ranjit Singh 125

First Anglo-Sikh War (1845-46) 126

Second Anglo-Sikh War (1848-49) 128

The significance of the Anglo-Sikh Wars 129

Extension of British Paramountcy Through 129

Administrative Policy

The Policy of Ring-Fence 130

Subsidiary Alliance 130

spectrum books: The doctrine of Lapse 134

Relations of British India with Neighbouring 135

Countries

Anglo-Bhutanese Relations 136

Anglo-Nepalese Relations 136

Anglo-Burmese Relations 137

Anglo-Tibetan Relations 138

Anglo-Afghan Relations 139

John Lawrence and the Policy of 141

Masterly Inactivity

Lytton and the Policy of Proud Reserve 142

British India and the North-West Frontier 143

Summary 144

Boxes

Robert Clive 99

Estimate of Tipu Sultan 107

Annexation of Awadh 135

spectrum textbooks Unit III

RISING RESENTMENT AGAINST 147

COMPANY RULE

Chapter 6: People’s Resistance Against British Before 1857

People’s Resistance: Meaning 149

The genesis of People’s Resistance 150

Causative Factors for People’s Uprisings 150

Civil Uprisings 151

Major Causes of Civil Uprisings 151

General Characteristics of Civil Uprisings 152

Important Civil Uprisings 152

Peasant Movements with Religious Overtones 166

Tribal Revolts 168

Different Causes for Mainland and 168

North-Eastern Tribal Revolts

Characteristics of Tribal Revolts 169

Important Tribal Movements of Mainland 170

Tribal Movements of the North-East 176

spectrum books: Sepoy Mutinies 177

Causes 177

Important Mutinies 178

Weaknesses of People’s Uprisings 179

Summary 179

Boxes

Tribal Movements: Period, Region, Causes at a Glance 174

North-East Frontier Tribal Movements: Year, 176

The region, Major Causes

Chapter 7: spectrum books The Revolt of 1857

Simmering Discontent 183

The 1857 Revolt: the Major Causes 184

Economic Causes 184

Political Causes 185

Administrative Causes 186

Socio-Religious Causes 186

Influence of Outside Events 187

Discontent Among Sepoys 187

Beginning and Spread of the Revolt 188

The Spark 188

Starts at Meerut 188

Choice of Bahadur Shah as Symbolic Head 189

Civilians Join 190

Storm Centres and Leaders of the Revolt 190

Suppression of the Revolt 193

Why the Revolt Failed 194

All-India participation was absent 194

All classes did not join 195

Poor Arms and Equipment 195

Uncoordinated and Poorly Organised 195

No Unified Ideology 196

Hindu-Muslim Unity Factor 196

Nature of the Revolt 197

Consequences 200

Significance of the Revolt 204

Summary 205

Box

White Mutiny 202

Unit IV

REFORM MOVEMENTS 207

Chapter 8: Socio-Religious Reform Movements

General Features

Factors Giving Rise to Desire for Reform 209

spectrum books: Impact of British Rule 209

Social Conditions Ripe for Reform 210

Opposition to Western Culture 211

New Awareness among Enlightened Indians 211

Social and Ideological Bases of Reform 212

Middle Class Base 212

The Intellectual Criteria 213

Two Streams 215

Direction of Social Reform 215

Fight for Betterment of Position of Women 216

Struggle Against Caste-Based Exploitation 221

Summary 226

Chapter 9: A General Survey of Socio-Cultural Rajiv Ahir

Reform Movements

Socio-Cultural Reform Movements and their Leaders 228

Raja Rammohan Roy and Brahmo Samaj 228

Prarthana Samaj 234

Young Bengal Movement and Henry 235

Vivian Derozio

Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar 236

Balshastri Jambhekar 236

Paramahansa Mandali 237

Satyashodhak Samaj and Jyotiba or Jyotirao Phule 237

Gopalhari Deshmukh ‘Lokahitawadi’ 238

Gopal Ganesh Agarkar 238

The Servants of India Society 239

Social Service League 239

The Ramakrishna Movement and 240

Swami Vivekananda

Dayananda Saraswati and Arya Samaj 244

Seva Sadan 246

Dev Samaj 247

Dharma Sabha 247

Bharat Dharma Mahamandala 247

Radhaswami Movement 248

Sree Narayana Guru Dharma Paripalana (SNDP) 248

Movement

Vokkaliga Sangha 249

Justice Movement 249

Self-Respect Movement 249

Temple Entry Movement 250

Indian Social Conference 250

Wahabi/Walliullah Movement 251

Titu Mir‘s Movement 251

Faraizi Movement 252

Ahmadiyya Movement 252

Sir Syed Ahmed Khan and the Aligarh Movement 253

The Deoband School (Darul Uloom) 255

Parsi Reform Movements 256

Sikh Reform Movements 256

The Theosophical Movement 257

Significance of Reform Movements 258

Positive Aspects 258

Negative Aspects 260

Unit V

THE STRUGGLE BEGINS 263

Chapter 10: Beginning of Modern Nationalism in India

Factors in the Growth of Modern Nationalism 265

Understanding of Contradictions in Indian 265

and Colonial Interests

Political, Administrative and Economic Unification of

the Country 266

Western Thought and Education 267

Role of Press and Literature 267

Rediscovery of India’s Past 268

Progressive Character of Socio-religious 268

Reform Movements

Rise of Middle Class Intelligentsia 268

Impact of Contemporary Movements in the World 269

Reactionary Policies and Racial 269

Arrogance of Rulers

Political Associations Before the Indian 269

National Congress

Political Associations in Bengal 270

Political Associations in Bombay 272

Political Associations in Madras 272

Pre-Congress Campaigns 272

Summary 273

Chapter 11: spectrum books Indian National Congress

INC Foundation and the Moderate Phase

Foundation of Indian National Congress 274

Was It a Safety Valve? 275

Aims and Objectives of the Congress 276

Era of Modernates (1885-1905) 276

Important Leaders 276

Moderate Approach 276

Contributions of Moderate Nationalists 277

Economic Critique of British Imperialism 277

Constitutional Reforms and Propaganda in 278

Legislature

Campaign for General Administrative Reforms 280

Protection of Civil Rights 281

An Evaluation of the Early Nationalists 282

Role of Masses 282

Attitude of the Government 283

Summary 284

Box

Indian Councils Act 1892 279

Unit VI

NATIONAL MOVEMENT (1905-1918) 285

Chapter 12: Era of Militant Nationalism (1905-1909)

Growth of Militant Nationalism 287

Why Militant Nationalism Grew 287

The Swadeshi and Boycott Movement 291

Partition of Bengal to Divide People 291

Anti-Partition Campaign Under 292

Moderates (1903-05)

The Congress’s Position 293

The Movement under Extremist Leadership 294

The Extremist Programme 294

New Forms of Struggle 295

Extent of Mass Participation 298

All India Aspect 299

Annulment of Partition 300

Evaluation of the Swadeshi Movement 300

The Movement Fizzles Out 300

Movement a Turning Point 301

The Surat Split 303

Run-up to Surat 304

Split Takes Place 305

Government Repression 306

The Government Strategy 307

Morley-Minto Reforms—1909 308

The Reforms 308

Evaluation 310

Summary 311

Box

Differences between Moderates and Extremists 302

Chapter 13: First Phase of Revolutionary Activities

(1907-1917)

Why the Surge of Revolutionary Activities 315

The Revolutionary Programme 316

A Survey of Revolutionary Activities 316

Bengal 316

Maharashtra 319

Punjab 320

Revolutionary Activities Abroad 321

Decline 325

Summary 326

Chapter 14: spectrum books First World War and Nationalist Response

Home Rule League Movement 329

Factors Leading to the Movement 329

The Leagues 330

The Home Rule League Programme 331

Government Attitude 332

Why the Agitation Faded Out by 1919 332

Positive Gains 333

Lucknow Session of the Indian National 333

Congress (1916)

Readmission of Extremists to Congress 333

Lucknow Pact between Congress and 334

Muslim League

Montagu’s Statement of August 1917 337

Indian Objections 337

Summary 338

Unit VII

ERA OF MASS NATIONALISM BEGINS 339

(1919-1939)

Chapter 15: spectrum books Emergence of Gandhi

Why Nationalist Resurgence Now 341

Post-War Economic Hardships 341

Expectations of Political Gains for Cooperation 342

in the War

Nationalist Disillusionment with Imperialism 342

Worldwide

Impact of Russian Revolution (November 7, 1917) 343

Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms and Government 343

of India Act, 1919

Main Features 343

Drawbacks 346

Congress’s Reaction 346

Making of Gandhi 347

Early Career and Experiments with 347

Truth in South Africa

Gandhi’s Experience in South Africa 351

Gandhi’s Technique of Satyagraha 351

Gandhi in India 352

Champaran Satyagraha (1917)—First Civil 353

Disobedience

Ahmedabad Mill Strike (1918)—First Hunger Strike 354

Kheda Satyagraha (1918)—First Non-Cooperation 355

Gains from Champaran, Ahmedabad and Kheda 356

Rowlatt Act, Satyagraha, Jallianwala Bagh Massacre 356

The Rowlatt Act 356

Satyagraha Against the Rowlatt Act— 357

First Mass Strike

Jallianwala Bagh Massacre (April 13, 1919) 358

The Hunter Committee of Inquiry 361

Congress View 363

Summary 364

Box

Tolstoy Farm 350

Chapter 16: spectrum books Non-Cooperation Movement

Khilafat Aandolan Rajiv Ahir

Background 366

The Khilafat Issue 367

Development of the Khalifat-Non-Cooperation 368

Programme

Congress Stand on Khilafat Question 368

Muslim League Support to Congress 369

The Non-Cooperation Khilafat Movement 369

Spread of the Movement 371

People’s Response 373

Government Response 374

The Last Phase of the Movement 374

Why Gandhi Withdrew the Movement 376

Evaluation of Khilafat Non-Cooperation Movement 377

Summary 378

Chapter 17: Emergence of Swarajists, Socialist Ideas

Revolutionary Activities and Other New Forces

Swarajists and No-Changers 379

Genesis of Congress-Khilafat Swarajya Party 379

Swarajists’ Arguments 380

No-Changers’ Arguments 380

Agree to Disagree 381

The Swarajist Manifesto for Elections 381

Gandhi’s Attitude 382

Swarajist Activity in Councils 382

Constructive Work by No-Changers 384

Emergence of New Forces: Socialistic Ideas, 385

Youth Power, Trade Unionism

Spread of Marxist and Socialist Ideas 385

Activism of Indian Youth 387

Peasants’ Agitations 387

Growth of Trade Unionism 387

Caste Movements 387

Revolutionary Activity with a Turn towards 388

Socialism

Revolutionary Activity During the 1920s 388

Why Attraction for Revolutionary Activity 388

after Non-Cooperation Movement

Major Influences 389

In Punjab-United Provinces-Bihar 389

In Bengal 391

Official Reaction 394

Ideological Rethinking 394

Summary 396

Chapter 18: Simon Commission and the Nehru Report

Appointment of the Indian Statutory Commission 398

Indian Response 399

Police Repression 401

Impact of Appointment of Simon Commission 401

on the National Movement

The Simon Commission Recommendations 402

Nehru Report 403

Main Recommendations 403

The Muslim and Hindu Communal Responses 404

Amendments Proposed by Jinnah 406

Nehru Report Found Unsatisfactory 407

Summary 407

Box

Dr Ambedkar and the Simon Commission 400

Chapter 19: Civil Disobedience Movement

Round Table Conferences

The Run-up to Civil Disobedience Movement 408

Calcutta Session of Congress 408

Political Activity during 1929 409

Irwin’s Declaration (October 31, 1929) 409

Delhi Manifesto 410

Lahore Congress and Purna Swaraj 410

January 26, 1930: the Independence Pledge 412

Civil Disobedience Movement—the Salt Satyagraha 413

and Other Upsurges

Gandhi’s Eleven Demands 413

Why Salt was Chosen as the Important Theme 414

Dandi March (March 12-April 6, 1930) 414

Spread of Salt Disobedience 415

Impact of Agitation 420

Extent of Mass Participation 420

Government Response—Efforts for Truce 421

Gandhi-Irwin Pact 422

Evaluation of Civil Disobedience Movement 423

Karachi Congress Session—1931 425

Congress Resolutions at Karachi 425

The Round Table Conferences 426

First Round Table Conference 426

Second Round Table Conference 428

Third Round Table Conference 431

Civil Disobedience Resumed 432

During Truce Period (March-December 1931) 432

Changed Government Attitude After Second RTC 432

Government Action 433

Popular Response 433

Communal Award and Poona Pact 434

Main Provisions of the Communal Award 435

Congress Stand 436

Gandhi’s Response 436

Poona Pact 437

Impact of Poona Pact on Dalits 437

Gandhi’s Harijan Campaign and thoughts on Caste 438

Ideological Differences and Similarities between 441

Gandhi and Ambedkar

Summary 445

Chapter 20: spectrum modern history

Debates on the Future Strategy after Civil 448

Disobedience Movement

The First Stage Debate 448

Nehru’s Vision 449

Nehru’s Opposition to Struggle￾Truce-Struggle Strategy 450

Finally, Yes to Council Entry 450

Government of India Act, 1935 451

Main Features 451

Evaluation of the Act 454

Nationalists’ Response 455

The Second Stage Debate 455

Divided Opinion 456

Gandhi’s Position 457

Congress Manifesto for Elections 457

Congress’ Performance 458

Summary 458

Chapter 21: spectrum history book

Congress Rule in Provinces 459

Gandhi’s Advice 459

Work under Congress Ministries 459

Civil Liberties 460

Agrarian Reforms 460

Attitude Towards Labour 461

Social Welfare Reforms 462

Evaluation 462

Summary 464

Unit VIII

TOWARDS FREEDOM AND 465

PARTITION 1939-1947

Chapter 22: spectrum textbooks

Nationalist Response in the Wake of 467

World War II

Congress Crisis on Method of Struggle 467

Haripura and Tripuri Sessions: Subhash 467

Bose’s Views

Gandhi and Bose: Ideological Differences 472

Non-Violence versus Militant Approach 473

Means and Ends 473

Form of Government 474

Militarism 477

Ideas on Economy 478

Religion 480

Caste and Untouchability 482

Women 482

Education 485

Second World War and Nationalistic Response 486

Congress Offer to Viceroy 487

CWC Meeting at Wardha 487

Government Attitude and Congress 488

Ministries’ Resignation

Government’s Hidden Agenda 489

August Offer 492

Responses 493

Evaluation 493

Individual Satyagrahas 493

Gandhi Designates Nehru as his Successor 494

Cripps Mission 495

Why Cripps Mission was Sent 495

Main Proposals 496

Departures from the Past and Implications 496

Why Cripps Mission Failed 497

Summary 499

Chapter 23: Quit India Movement, Demand for Pakistan

and the INA

Quit India Movement 501

Why Start a Struggle Now 501

The ‘Quit India’ Resolution 502

Gandhi’s General Instructions to 502

Different Sections

Spread of the Movement 503

Extent of Mass Participation 505

Government Repression 506

Estimate 506

Gandhi Fasts 507

Famine of 1943 507

Rajagopalachari Formula 508

The Formula 508

Objections 508

Desai-Liaqat Pact 509

Wavell Plan 509

Why the Government was Keen on a Solution Now 509

The Plan 510

Muslim League’s Stand 510

Congress Stand 511

Wavell’s Mistake 511

The Indian National Army and Subhash Bose 511

Origin and First Phase of the Indian National Army 512

Summary 516

Chapter 24: spectrum books Post-War National Scenario

Two Strands of National Upsurge 518

Why a Change in Government’s Attitude 519

Congress Election Campaign and INA Trials 520

Election Campaign for Nationalistic Aims 520

Congress Support for INA Prisoners 521

The INA Agitation—A Landmark on Many Counts521

Three Upsurges—Winter of 1945-46 522

Three-Stage Pattern 523

Evaluation of Potential and Impact of the 524

Three Upsurges

Congress Strategy 525

Election Results 526

Performance of the Congress 526

Muslim League’s Performance 526

Significant Features of Elections 527

The Cabinet Mission 527

Why British Withdrawal Seemed Imminent Now 527

On the Eve of Cabinet Mission Plan 529

Cabinet Mission Arrives 529

Cabinet Mission Plan—Main Points 529

Different Interpretations of the Grouping Clause 531

Main Objections 531

Acceptance and Rejection 532

Communal Holocaust and the Interim Government 533

Changed Government Priorities 533

Interim Government 533

Obstructionist Approach and Ulterior 535

Motives of League

Birth and Spread of Communalism in India 535

Characteristic Features of Indian Communalism 536

Reasons for Growth of Communalism 537

Evolution of the Two-Nation Theory 543

Summary 547

Box

Wavell’s “Breakdown Plan” 532

Chapter 25: Independence with Partition Rajvir Ahir

Attlee’s Statement of February 20, 1947 550

Main Points of Attlee’s Statement 550

Why a Date Fixed by Government for Withdrawal 551

Congress Stand 551

Independence and Partition 551

Mountbatten as the Viceroy 552

Mountbatten Plan, June 3, 1947 552

Indian Independence Act 555

Problems of Early withdrawal 556

Integration of States 556

Inevitability of Partition 557

Why Congress Accepted Partition 557

Gandhi’s Helplessness 559

Summary 560

Box

Plan Balkan 555

INDIA UNDER BRITISH RULE: 561

GOVERNANCE AND OTHER ASPECTS

Chapter 26: Constitutional, Administrative and Judicial Developments

Constitutional Development between 1773 and 1858 563

The Regulating Act of 1773 564

Pitt’s India Act of 1784 565

The Act of 1786 565

The Charter Act of 1793 566

The Charter Act of 1813 566

The Charter Act of 1833 567

The Charter Act of 1853 568

The Act for Better Government of India, 1858 569

Developments after 1858 till Independence 569

Indian Councils Act, 1861 569

Indian Councils Act, 1892 570

Indian Councils Act, 1909 571

Government of India Act, 1919 571

Simon Commission 573

Government of India Act, 1935 574

Evolution of Civil Services in India 576

Cornwallis’ Role 576

Wellesley’s Role 577

Charter Act of 1853 577

Indian Civil Service Act, 1861 577

Statutory Civil Service 578

Congress Demand and Aitchison Committee 578

Montford Reforms (1919) 578

Lee Commission (1924) 579

Evaluation of Civil Services under British Rule 579

Evolution of Police System in Modern India 580

Military Under the British 582

Development of Judiciary in British India 584

Reforms under Warren Hastings (1772-1785) 585

Reforms under Cornwallis (1786-1793)— 585

Separation of Powers

Reforms under William Bentinck (1828-1833) 586

Later Developments 587

Evaluation 587

Major Changes in Administrative Structure after 1857 588

Genesis of Administrative Changes: 588

New Stage of Colonialism

Administration: Central, Provincial, Local 589

Central Government 589

Provincial Government 590

Local Bodies 591

Chapter 27

Survey of British Policies in India 597

Administrative Policies 597

Divide and Rule 597

Hostility Towards Educated Indians 597

Attitude Towards the Zamindars 598

Attitude Towards Social Reforms 598

Underdeveloped Social Services 598

Labour Legislation 599

Restrictions on Freedom of the Press 600

White Racism 601

British Social and Cultural Policy in India 601

Characteristics of New Thought 602

Schools of Thought 602

Indian Renaissance 603

Dilemma Before the Government 603

Role of Christian Missionaries 604

British Retreat 604

British Policy Towards Princely States 604

British Foreign Policy in India 605

Economic Impact of British Rule in India 607

Deindustrialisation—Ruin of Artisans and 607

Handicraftsmen

One-Way Free Trade 607

No Steps towards Modern Industrialisation 608

Ruralisation 608

Impoverishment of Peasantry 609

Emergence of Intermediaries, Absentee Landlordism, 610

Ruin of Old Zamindars

Stagnation and Deterioration of Agriculture 610

Famine and Poverty 610

Commercialisation of Indian Agriculture 611

Destruction of Industry and Late Development 612

of Modern Industry

Nationalist Critique of Colonial Economy 614

British Policies Making India Poor 615

Growth of Trade and Railways to Help Britain 617

One-Way Free Trade and Tariff Policy 617

Effect of Economic Drain 618

Economic Issue a Stimulant to National Unrest 619

Stages of Colonialism in India 619

First Stage 619

Second Stage 620

Third Stage 622

Summary 623

Box

Economic Drain 615

Chapter 29: Development of Indian Press

Early Regulations 625

Struggle by Early Nationalists to Secure 626

Press Freedom

Vernacular Press Act, 1878 628

During and After the First World War 631

During the Second World War 631

Chapter 30

Development of Education 632

Under Company Rule 632

A Humble beginning by Charter Act of 1813 633

Orientalist-Anglicist Controversy 633

Lord Macaulay’s Minute (1835) 634

Efforts of Thomson 634

Wood’s Despatch (1854) 635

After the Crown Took Over 636

Hunter Education Commission (1882-83) 636

Indian Universities Act, 1904 637

Government Resolution on Education 638

Policy—1913

Saddler University Commission (1917-19) 638

Education Under Dyarchy 639

Hartog Committee (1929) 639

Sergeant Plan of Education 640

Development of Vernacular Education 641

Development of Technical Education 642

Evaluation of British Policy on Education 642

Box

Wardha Scheme of Basic Education (1937) 640

Chapter 31: spectrum books Peasant Movements 1857-1947

Peasantry Under Colonialism 644

A Survey of Early Peasant Movements 645

Indigo Revolt (1859-60) 645

Pabna Agrarian Leagues 646

Deccan Riots 646

Changed Nature of Peasant Movements after 1857 647

Weaknesses 648

Later Movements 648

The Kisan Sabha Movement 648

Eka Movement 649

Mappila Revolt 650

Bardoli Satyagraha 650

The All India Kisan Congress/Sabha 652

Under Congress Ministries 652

Peasant Activity in Provinces 652

During the War 653

Post-War Phase 654

Balance-Sheet of Peasant Movements 656

Chapter 32: The Movement of the Working Class

Early Efforts 658

During Swadeshi Upsurge 658

During the First World War and After 659

The AITUC 659

The Trade Union Act, 1926 660

Late 1920s 660

Meerut Conspiracy Case (1929) 661

Under Congress Ministries 661

During and After the Second World War 661

After Independence 662

Unit X

INDEPENDENCE AND AFTER 663

Chapter 33: Challenges Before the New-born Nation

First Day of Independent India 665

First Cabinet After Independence 665

Radcliffe’s Boundary Award and the Communal Riots 667

Challenges before the Boundary Commission 668

Regions Most Affected by Riots 669

Challenges Associated with Division of Resources 671

Division of Civil Government 671

Division of Finances 671

Division of Defence Personnel and Equipment 672

Assassination of Gandhi 672

Rehabilitation and Resettlement of Refugees 673

East Punjab 674

Bengal 674

Delhi Pact on Minorities 675

Centres of Refugee Settlements in India 676

Communists and Independence 676

Why Communists were Skeptical about 677

Independence?

Shift from Antagonistic Strategy to 677

Constitutional Democracy

Chapter 34

The Indian States 679

  1. The Company’s Struggle for Equality from

a Position of Subordination (1740-1765) 679

  1. Policy of Ring Fence (1765-1813) 680

III. Policy of Subordinate Isolation (1813-1857) 680

  1. Policy of Subordinate Union (1857-1935) 681

Curzon’s Approach 682

Post-1905 682

  1. Policy of Equal Federation (1935-1947): 683

A Non-Starter

  1. Integration and Merger 683

Plebiscite and Army Action 684

Gradual Integration 685

Chapter 35: Making of the Constitution for India

Background 686

Constituent Assembly 689

Formation 689

Two Constituent Assemblies: India and Pakistan 691

Evaluation of the Assembly for India 691

After Independence 692

Work : Committees and Consensus 693

Box

Drafting Committee 693

Chapter 36

The Evolution of Nationalist Foreign Policy 696

1880 to First World War: Anti-Imperialism and 697

Pan-Asian Feeling

World War I 698

1920s and 1930s—Identifying with Socialists 698

After 1936—Anti-Fascism 699

After Independence 699

Panchsheel and Non-Alignment 700

Boxes

Historical Perspective on Panchsheel 701

Five Criteria of Non-alignment 703

Chapter 37

First General Elections 705

Groundwork for the Elections 705

The Election Commission 705

Legislation for Polls 706

Independent India Goes to the Polls for the 707

First Time

Challenges 707

Parties in the Fray for the Lok Sabha 709

Conduct of Elections 710

Results 711

Box

First General Elections: Winners 711

Chapter 38: spectrum books

Developments under Nehru’s Leadership (1947-64) 713

Political Developments 714

Debate Over National Language 714

Linguistic Reorganisation of the States 715

The growth of other Political Parties 718

An Undemocratic Deed 723

The concept of Planning for Economic Development 724

The progress of Science and Technology 725

Social Developments 726

Developments in Education 726

Social Change Under Nehru 727

Foreign Policy 728

Relations with Neighbours 729

India and Pakistan 729

India and China 730

India and Nepal 732

India and Bhutan 732

India and Sri Lanka 732

APPENDICES 733

  1. Personalities Associated with Specific Movements 735

Swadeshi Movement 735

Non-cooperation Movement 739

Civil Disobedience Movement 743

Quit India Movement 747

  1. Governors-General and Viceroys of India: 750

Significant Events in their Rule

  1. Indian National Congress Annual Sessions 760
  2. Socio-Religious Reform Movements 765

(late 18th to mid-20th century)

  1. Famous Trials of the Nationalist Period 772
  2. Caste Movements 774
  3. Peasant Movements 776
  4. Newspapers and Journals 779

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